Diatrix® is created with only the best supplements to help you succeed in your diabetic diet. Click on any of the links below to quickly reach the clinical studies on each ingredient.
Alpha Lipoic Acid - helps prevent neuropathy and can also reduce blood glucose levels.
Vitamin E - Has been shown to lower insulin resistance. This helps your body's insulin will become more effective at lowering blood sugars.
Omega 3 - Qualified health claims from the FDA show supportive but not conclusive research shows that consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk of coronary heart disease. Studies show that omega-3 fatty acids lower triglycerides, but do not affect blood glucose control, total cholesterol, or HDL (good) cholesterol in people with diabetes.
EGCG Green Tea Extract - helps protect against cardiovascular disease and has a beneficial effect of insulin activity and glucose control.
Asian Ginseng (root) - Helps reduce fasting blood sugar levels and body weight.
Fenugreek - helps lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes, and to a lesser extent, lowering blood cholesterol. The fiber content of fenugreek also aids in weight control.
Chromium - people with diabetes take Chromium in an effort to improve their blood glucose control.
Vanadium - over time acts similar to insulin in transporting glucose to the cells.
Biotin - Helps improve blood sugar control and reduce cholesterol levels. In addition, when combined with Chromium, the effectiveness of both is multiplied to a greater effect.
Lipoic acid prevents hypertension, hyperglycemia, and the increase in heart mitochondrial superoxide production.
Am J Hypertens 2003 Mar;16(3):173-9
Midaoui AE, Elimadi A, Wu L, Haddad PS, de Champlain J.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
The present study was designed to investigate whether the effects of dietary supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid could prevent the increase in mitochondrial superoxide production in the heart as well as the enhanced formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) that are associated with the development of hypertension and insulin resistance in chronically glucose-fed rats.Sprague Dawley rats were either given or not given a 10% D-glucose solution to drink during 4 weeks, combined either with a normal chow diet or with alpha-lipoic acid supplemented diet. The oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the heart mitochondrial superoxide production using the lucigenin chemiluminescence method. The formation of AGE was also assessed in plasma and aorta.Chronic administration of glucose resulted in a 29% increase in blood pressure, 30% increase in glycemia, 286% increase in insulinemia, and 408% increase in insulin resistance index. Chronic glucose feeding also resulted in a 22% greater mitochondrial superoxide anion production in heart and in an increase of 63% in AGE content in aorta. Increases in blood pressure, aorta AGE content and heart mitochondrial superoxide production were prevented in the rats fed glucose supplemented with lipoic acid. The simultaneous treatment with lipoic acid also attenuated the rise in insulin levels as well as in insulin resistance in the glucose fed rats.These findings demonstrate that alpha-lipoic acid supplementation prevents development of hypertension and hyperglycemia, presumably through its antioxidative properties, as reflected by prevention of an increase in heart mitochondrial superoxide anion production and in AGE formation in the aorta of chronically glucose treated rats.
PMID: 12620694 [PubMed - in process]
The sensory symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy are improved with alpha-lipoic acid: the SYDNEY trial.
Diabetes Care 2003 Mar;26(3):770-6
Ametov AS, Barinov A, Dyck PJ, Hermann R, Kozlova N, Litchy WJ, Low PA, Nehrdich D, Novosadova M, O'Brien PC, Reljanovic M, Samigullin R, Schuette K, Strokov I, Tritschler HJ, Wessel K, Yakhno N, Ziegler D; SYDNEY Trial Study Group.
Russian Medical Academy for Advanced Studies, Moscow, Russia.
OBJECTIVE: Because alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a potent antioxidant, prevents or improves nerve conduction attributes, endoneurial blood flow, and nerve (Na(+) K(+) ATPase activity in experimental diabetes and in humans and may improve positive neuropathic sensory symptoms, in this report we further assess the safety and efficacy of ALA on the Total Symptom Score (TSS), a measure of positive neuropathic sensory symptoms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Metabolically stable diabetic patients with symptomatic (stage 2) diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) were randomized to a parallel, double-blind study of ALA (600 mg) (n = 60) or placebo (n = 60) infused daily intravenously for 5 days/week for 14 treatments. The primary end point was change of the sum score of daily assessments of severity and duration of TSS. Secondary end points were sum scores of neuropathy signs (NIS), symptoms (NSC), attributes of nerve conduction, quantitative sensation tests (QSTs), and an autonomic test. RESULTS: At randomization, the groups were not significantly different by the criteria of metabolic control or neuropathic end points. After 14 treatments, the TSS of the ALA group had improved from baseline by an average of 5.7 points and the placebo group by an average of 1.8 points (P < 0.001). Statistically significant improvement from baseline of the ALA, as compared with the placebo group, was also found for each item of the TSS (lancinating and burning pain, asleep numbness and prickling), NIS, one attribute of nerve conduction, and global assessment of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous racemic ALA, a potent antioxidant, rapidly and to a significant and meaningful degree, improved such positive neuropathic sensory symptoms as pain and several other neuropathic end points. This improvement of symptoms was attributed to improved nerve pathophysiology, not to increased nerve fiber degeneration. Because of its safety profile and its effect on positive neuropathic sensory symptoms and other neuropathic end points, this drug appears to be a useful ancillary treatment for the symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy.
PMID: 12610036 [PubMed - in process]
Characterization of Retinal Leukostasis and Hemodynamics in Insulin Resistance and Diabetes: Role of Oxidants and Protein Kinase-C Activation.
Diabetes 2003 Mar;52(3):829-837
Abiko T, Abiko A, Clermont AC, Shoelson B, Horio N, Takahashi J, Adamis AP, King GL, Bursell SE.
Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Increases in leukostasis/monocyte adhesion to the capillary endothelium (leukostasis) and decreases in retinal blood flow may be causally associated and are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we demonstrate that increases in leukostasis are observed in insulin-resistant states without diabetes, whereas decreases in retinal blood flow require diabetes and hyperglycemia. Microimpaction studies using beads mimicking retinal capillary obstruction by leukocytes did not affect retinal blood flow. In diabetic rats, treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid normalized the amount of leukostasis but not retinal blood flow. In contrast, treatment with D-alpha-tocopherol and protein kinase-C beta-isoform inhibition (LY333531) prevented the increases in leukostasis and decreases in retinal blood flow in diabetic rats. Serum hydroxyperoxide, a marker of oxidative stress, was increased in diabetic rats, but normalized by treatment with antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and D-alpha-tocopherol and, surprisingly, PKC beta-isoform inhibition. These findings suggest that leukostasis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress but is not related to retinal blood flow and is not sufficient to cause diabetic-like retinopathy. Moreover, treatment with PKC beta inhibition is effective to normalize diabetes or hyperglycemia-induced PKC beta-isoform activation and oxidative stress.
PMID: 12606527 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Pharmacological doses of vitamin E and insulin action in elderly subjects
G Paolisso, G Di Maro, D Galzerano, F Cacciapuoti, G Varricchio, M Varricchio and F D'Onofrio
Department of Geriatric Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, II University of Naples, Italy.
Twenty elderly (77 +/- 0.4 y), nonobese [body mass index (in kg/m2) 26.4 +/- 0.5] subjects with normal glucose tolerance were submitted to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (3.5 pmol.min/kg) glucose clamp in a double-blind, crossover, randomized procedure after 4 mo treatment with either vitamin E (900 mg d-alpha-tocopherol/d, Ephynal; Roche, Milan, Italy) or placebo. Body mass index was practically unchanged throughout the study. After the glucose clamp, insulin-mediated stimulation 2 of whole-body glucose disposal (18.4 +/- 0.5 vs 26.1 +/- 0.6 mumol.min/kg lean body mass P < 0.02) was significantly potentiated by vitamin E rather than placebo administration. Furthermore, net changes in plasma vitamin E concentrations correlated with net changes in insulin- stimulated whole-body glucose disposal (r = 0.60 P < 0.003). Plasma vitamin E concentrations seem to play an important role in the modulation of insulin action in elderly people.
Endothelial function, insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors in young healthy adult offspring of parents with Type 2 diabetes: effect of vitamin E in a randomized double-blind, controlled clinical trial.
McSorley PT, Bell PM, Young IS, Atkinson AB, Sheridan B, Fee JP, McCance DR.
Regional Centre for Endocrinology & Diabetes, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, N. Ireland, UK.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and oxidative stress are believed to be central and associated mechanisms in atherogenesis. We aimed to determine the effect of the antioxidant vitamin E on endothelial function, insulin action and cardiovascular risk markers in young healthy adult offspring of parents with Type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: Healthy, glucose-tolerant adults (18-38 years), 14 (12 male/2 female) with at least one parent with Type 2 diabetes, and 14 (12 male/2 female) subjects with no family history of diabetes (controls) were studied. Insulin action was assessed by euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (1 mU/kg/min). Endothelial function was assessed by forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to intra-brachial artery infusions of acetylcholine (ACh) (endothelium-dependent vasodilation), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (endothelium-independent vasodilation) and N(G)-monomethyl L-arginine (LNMMA) (nitric oxide synthase inhibition). Thirteen offspring (18-38 years, 11 male/2 female, BMI < 30 kg/m2) completed a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial (12 weeks vitamin E 800 IU/day or placebo, 6-week washout).
RESULTS: Exogenous glucose infusion rates to maintain euglycaemia were positively associated with response to acetylcholine in offspring (r = 0.61, P < 0.05), and were linked with triglycerides. Vitamin E had no effect on endothelial function, insulin action or cardiovascular risk markers in healthy adult offspring of parents with Type 2 diabetes.
Our results support a positive association between insulin action and endothelial-dependent vasodilation in young healthy adult offspring of parents with Type 2 diabetes, but indicate no effect of vitamin E on these parameters.
Several clinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure in people with hypertension. An analysis of 17 clinical studies using fish oil supplements found that taking 3 or more grams of fish oil daily may reduce blood pressure in people with untreated hypertension. Doses this high, however, should only be taken under the direction of a physician.
People with diabetes often have high triglyceride and low HDL levels. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil can help lower triglycerides and apoproteins (markers of diabetes), and raise HDL, so eating foods or taking fish oil supplements may help people with diabetes. Another type of omega-3 fatty acid, ALA (from flaxseed, for example) may not have the same benefit as fish oil. Some people with diabetes can' t efficiently convert ANA to a form of omega-3 fatty acids that the body can use. Also, some people with type 2 diabetes may have slight increases in fasting blood sugar when taking fish oil, so talk to your doctor to see if fish oil is right for you.
Ref: University of Maryland Medical Center
FDA Announces Qualified Health Claims for Omega-3 Fatty Acids
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today announced the availability of a qualified health claim for reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) on conventional foods that contain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) omega-3 fatty acids.
Typically, EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids are contained in oily fish, such as salmon, lake trout, tuna and herring. These fatty acids are not essential to the diet; however, scientific evidence indicates that these fatty acids may be beneficial in reducing CHD.
"Coronary heart disease is a significant health problem that causes 500,000 deaths annually in the United States," said Dr. Lester M. Crawford, Acting FDA Commissioner. "This new qualified health claim for omega-3 fatty acids should help consumers as they work to improve their health by identifying foods that contain these important compounds."
A qualified health claim on a conventional food must be supported by credible scientific evidence. Based on a systematic evaluation of the available scientific data, as outlined in FDA's "Interim Procedures for Qualified Health Claims in the Labeling of Conventional Human Food and Human Dietary Supplements", FDA is announcing a qualified health claim for EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids. While this research is not conclusive, the FDA intends to exercise its enforcement discretion with respect to the following qualified health claim:
"Supportive but not conclusive research shows that consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. One serving of [name of food] provides [x] grams of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids. [See nutrition information for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol content.]
In 2000, FDA announced a similar qualified health claim for dietary supplements containing EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids and the reduced risk of CHD. FDA recommends that consumers not exceed more than a total of 3 grams per day of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids, with no more than 2 grams per day from a dietary supplement.
Green tea has been used traditionally to control blood sugar in the body. Animal studies suggest that green tea may help prevent the development of type 1 diabetes and slow the progression once it has developed. People with type 1 diabetes produce little or no insulin, a hormone that converts glucose (sugar), starches, and other foods into energy needed for daily life. Green tea may help regulate glucose in the body.
A few small clinical studies have found that daily supplementation of the diet with green tea extract powder lowered the hemoglobin A1c level in individuals with borderline diabetes.
Clinical studies suggest that green tea extract may boost metabolism and help burn fat. One study confirmed that the combination of green tea and caffeine improved weight loss and maintenance in overweight and moderately obese individuals. Some researchers speculate that substances in green tea known as polyphenols, specifically the catechins, are responsible for the herb's fat-burning effect.
Ref: University of Maryland Medical Center
EGCG green tea extract health benefit, side effects, effect on metabolism, does it work for weight loss?
Epigallocatechin gallate supplementation alleviates diabetes in rodents.
J Nutr. 2006.
This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of the most abundant green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (TEAVIGO ), in rodent models of type 2 diabetes mellitus and H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. We assessed glucose and insulin tolerance in db/db mice and ZDF rats after they ingested EGCG. This study shows that EGCG beneficially modifies glucose and lipid metabolism in H4IIE cells and markedly enhances glucose tolerance in diabetic rodents.
Research with EGCG and weigh loss in humans is still quite early, and at this time it appears that green tea and EGCG may help slightly with weight loss when used in high amounts, but long term benefit versus potential risk of high EGCG consumption has yet to be determined.
Enviga, a sparkling green tea containing green tea extracts, calcium, and caffeine was conceived by Beverage Partners Worldwide -- a joint venture of Nestle S.A. and The Coca-Cola Company. "Enviga increases calorie burning. It represents the perfect partnership of science and nature," said Dr. Rhona Applebaum, chief scientist, The Coca- Cola Company. "Enviga contains the optimum blend of green tea extracts, caffeine and naturally active plant micronutrients designed to work with your body to increase calorie burning, thus creating a negative calorie effect." The Nestle Research Center in Lausanne, Switzerland, has studied the properties and benefits of green tea for decades as part of its extensive global tea business. A recent study conducted by the Center in collaboration with the University of Lausanne revealed that consuming the equivalent of three Enviga beverages over the course of the day resulted in a noticeable increase in calorie burning. "The accumulated body of scientific research shows the ability of green tea's powerful antioxidant EGCG to speed up metabolism and increase energy use, especially when combined with caffeine," said Nestle researcher Dr. Hilary Green. Studies have shown that when EGCG and caffeine are present at the levels comparable to that in three cans of Enviga, healthy subjects in the lean to normal weight range can experience an average increase in calorie burning by 60 - 100 calories. Enviga provides 90 mg of EGCG in each serving.
Dr. Sahelian says: I think it is premature to make the claim that ingesting Enviga leads to long term weight loss. I am concerned about the overstimulation of heart muscle when so much green tea and caffeine are ingested. It is possible that many people will continue drinking their coffee throughout the day while ingesting one or more cans of Enviga, hence potentially increasing their blood pressure and causing heart problems. Now that one of the largest companies in the US is heavily promoting green tea and EGCG, it is time to seriously evaluate the potential benefit and harm of overconsumption. I am concerned about the overstimulation of heart muscle when so much green tea and caffeine are ingested, and the potential for irritability, anxiety, and insomnia.
Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men.
Br J Nutr. 2005. Laval University, Ste-Foy, Quebec, Canada.
The main aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a mixture of green tea and Guarana extracts containing a fixed dose of caffeine and variable doses of EGCG on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Fourteen subjects took part to this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Each subject was tested five times in a metabolic chamber to measure 24 h energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. During each stay, the subjects ingested a capsule of placebo or capsules containing 200 mg caffeine and a variable dose of EGCG (90, 200, 300 or 400 mg) three times daily, 30 min before standardized meals. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure increased significantly by about 750 kJ with all EGCG caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. No effect of the EGCG caffeine mixture was observed for lipid oxidation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by about 7 and 5 mmHg, respectively, with the EGCG caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. This increase was significant only for 24 h diastolic blood pressure. The main finding of the study was the increase in 24 h energy expenditure with the mixtures. However, this increase was similar with all doses of EGCG in the mixtures.
Asian ginseng seems to be an antioxidant. Antioxidants help rid the body of free radicals, substances which can damage DNA and are thought to contribute to heart disease, diabetes, and other conditions. Preliminary studies suggest Asian ginseng may improve the symptoms of heart disease in humans. It also may decrease "bad" LDL cholesterol levels and raise "good" HDL cholesterol.
Its effect on blood pressure is more complicated. Some studies have found it seems to lower blood pressure, while others find it causes blood pressure to rise. That had led some people to wonder if ginseng may increase blood pressure at usual doses but lower it when doses are higher. Until researchers know for sure, you should not take ginseng if you have high blood pressure unless your doctor tells you it's OK.
Type 2 diabetes
Although American ginseng has been studied more for diabetes, both types of Panax ginsengs may lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. However, in a few studies it looked like Asian or Korean ginseng raised blood sugar levels. Some people think that the ginsenosides in American ginseng might lower blood sugar while different ginsenosides in Asian ginseng could raise blood sugar levels. Until more is known, you should not take ginseng if you have diabetes without your doctor's strict supervision and monitoring.
People who take ginseng often say they feel more alert. Several studies report that Asian ginseng may slightly improve thinking or learning. Early research shows that Asian ginseng may improve performance on such things as mental arithmetic, concentration, memory, and other measures. Some studies have also found a positive effect with the combination of Asian ginseng and Ginkgo biloba.
Most of the studies have found that ginseng does improve mental performance, but they have measured different kinds of mental function, making it hard to know exactly what the effects of ginseng are. For example, one study found that people who took ginseng increased their ability for abstract thought, but didn' t have any changes in their reaction time or concentration levels.
Ref: University of Maryland Medical Center
Panax ginseng is used primarily to improve psychologic function, exercise performance, immune function, and conditions associated with diabetes. Traditional Chinese medicine and many current research studies often use products that combine ginseng with other herbal medicines or vitamins. Because of the use of combination products and the limitations of some studies on ginseng (e.g., poor methodologic quality, research focusing on healthy volunteers, small sample size, unstandardized ginseng preparations, varying doses), it is difficult to draw conclusions about some of the clinical effects of ginseng. Many research trials have been performed on the standardized Panax ginseng extract Ginsana
The effects of Panax ginseng, given in a dosage of 100 or 200 mg per day for eight weeks, were studied in 36 patients with newly diagnosed non–insulin-dependent diabetes. The study showed improved fasting blood glucose levels, elevated mood, and improved psychophysical performance on a numbered diagram test. The 200-mg dose also resulted in improved hemoglobin A1C values.
Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:1373–5.
Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes.
Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Rao NS.
National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad.
The effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on blood glucose and the serum lipid profile was evaluated in insulin-dependent (Type I) diabetic patients. Isocaloric diets with and without fenugreek were each given randomly for 10 d. Defatted fenugreek seed powder (100 g), divided into two equal doses, was incorporated into the diet and served during lunch and dinner. The fenugreek diet significantly reduced fasting blood sugar and improved the glucose tolerance test. There was a 54 per cent reduction in 24-h urinary glucose excretion. Serum total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly reduced. The HDL cholesterol fraction, however, remained unchanged. These results indicate the usefulness of fenugreek seeds in the management of diabetes.
PMID: 2194788 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The galactomannan-rich soluble fiber fraction of fenugreek may be responsible for the antidiabetic activity of the seeds. Insulinotrophic and antidiabetic properties also have been associated with the amino acid 4-hydroxyisoleucine that occurs in fenugreek at a concentration of about 0.55%. In vitro studies have indicated that this amino acid causes direct pancreatic β-cell stimulation. Delayed gastric emptying and inhibition of glucose transport also have been postulated as possible mechanisms.
Madar Z, Stark AH. New legume sources as therapeutic agents. Br J Nutr . 2002;88(suppl 3):S287-S292.
Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B. Effect of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double-blind placebo controlled study. J Assoc Physicians India . 2001;49:1057-1061.
Clinical studies suggest that chromium supplements may be helpful for the following conditions:
Researchers have studied the effects of chromium supplements for type 2 diabetes for many years. While some clinical studies have found no benefit, other clinical studies have reported that chromium supplements may reduce blood sugar levels as well as the amount of insulin people with diabetes need.
In one double-blind, placebo-controlled study, people with type 2 diabetes who took chromium picolinate had better HbA1c values -- used to measure long-term control of blood sugar levels -- than those who took placebo. The group taking chromium also had better fasting blood glucose levels, a measure of short-term control of blood sugar levels.
Another double-blind, placebo-controlled study looked at a combination of chromium and biotin. Half the people in the study took chromium picolinate and biotin, and the other half took placebo. Those who took chromium and biotin had better fasting glucose levels as well as HbA1c values.
One study found that women who have diabetes as a result of being pregnant improved their blood sugar control when they took chromium.
But not all studies agree, and if chromium does help reduce blood glucose, it' s not clear how big the benefit might be. More research is needed.
Weight loss and obesity
Chromium is often advertised as a weight-loss aid and a way to improve lean muscle and reduce body fat. Studies have been mixed, with some finding that chromium may help people lose weight and build muscle, and others finding that it had no effect. If chromium does work for weight loss, it seems that the effects are small compared to those of exercise and a well-balanced diet.
Ref: University of Maryland Medical Center
Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus--a review.
Broadhurst CL, Domenico P.
Chromium (Cr) picolinate (CrPic) is a widely used nutritional supplement for optimal insulin function. A relationship among Cr status, diabetes, and associated pathologies has been established. Virtually all trials using CrPic supplementation for subjects with diabetes have demonstrated beneficial effects. Thirteen of 15 clinical studies (including 11 randomized, controlled studies) involving a total of 1,690 subjects (1,505 in CrPic group) reported significant improvement in at least one outcome of glycemic control. All 15 studies showed salutary effects in at least one parameter of diabetes management, including dyslipidemia. Positive outcomes from CrPic supplementation included reduced blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and reduced requirements for hypoglycemic medication. The greater bioavailability of CrPic compared with other forms of Cr (e.g., niacin-bound Cr or CrCl(3)) may explain its comparatively superior efficacy in glycemic and lipidemic control. The pooled data from studies using CrPic supplementation for type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects show substantial reductions in hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, which equate to a reduced risk for disease complications. Collectively, the data support the safety and therapeutic value of CrPic for the management of cholesterolemia and hyperglycemia in subjects with diabetes.
PMID: 17109600 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Animal experiments have shown that vanadium can mimic the effects of insulin and reduce blood sugar levels from high to normal. These benefits are seen with low doses and there have been limited clinical trials with vanadium salts in patients with Type II diabetes, indicating that vanadium may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetes.
Vanadium can improve sensitivity to insulin in both Type I and Type II diabetes. It has been shown in human studies to have some ability to lower cholesterol levels and blood pressure. Areas of the world where vanadium (and selenium) levels are high in the soil have lower rates of heart disease. After oral intake, effects of the mineral are seen weeks to months later due to its accumulation in tissues like the kidneys and bone.
Naylor GJ; Corrigan FM; Smith AH; Connelly P; Ward NI Further studies of vanadium in depressive psychosis. Br J Psychiatry, 1987 May, 150:, 656-61
Verma S; Cam MC; McNeill JH. Nutritional factors that can favorably influence the glucose/insulin system: vanadium. J Am Coll Nutr, 1998 Feb, 17:1, 11-8
Vanadium Salts In The Clinical Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus, NIH Guide, Volume 21, Number 42, November 20, 1992
Vanadium may be helpful in diabetes or blood sugar control.
Clinical trials of both vanadate and vanadyl have been carried out in either or both type 1 and type 2 diabetics. Modest improvement in glucose tolerance and/or insulin sensitivity, especially in type 2 diabetes, has been observed, although the trials have been for a short period. Treatment with sodium metavanadate at 1 mmol/day for 2 weeks resulted in significantly improved insulin sensitivities as measured by a 2-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in type 2 diabetic subjects only. Subjects also had reductions in cholesterol levels. Type 1 diabetics had decreased insulin requirements during the treatment period. Hemoglobin A1c levels were decreased by 10% on average in both groups. Oral vanadyl sulfate at 0.5 mmol/day for 3 weeks followed by 2 weeks of placebo showed increasing insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic subjects, which was sustained during the withdrawal period. Decreases in fasting plasma glucose and percent hemoglobin A1c were also seen. Safety and efficacy were evaluated at a higher dose of vanadyl sulfate therapy for 4 weeks at 1 mmol/day, resulting in significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose by 20%, and a reduction in hepatic insulin resistance. This dose was fairly well tolerated, although 6 of 8 subjects had gastrointestinal disturbances. In 16 type 2 diabetics who were given 3 graded doses of vanadyl sulfate at 75, 150 and 300 mg/day, equivalent to 0.35, 0.70 and 1.4 mmol/day of vanadium, over a 6-week period, there were significant decreases in fasting plasma glucose and percent hemoglobin A1c, although there was no correlation between plasma vanadium and clinical response. Vanadium is a redox active element, and oxidative stress was not increased overall with vanadium treatment. In a 12-week study in weight training non-diabetic adults, vanadyl sulfate at 0.5 mg/kg/day showed a complete lack of toxic, anabolic or hematologic effects. In 11 type 2 diabetic subjects who were treated with150 mg/day of vanadyl sulfate for 6 weeks, there was a 20% reduced fasting plasma glucose, 10% reduced percent hemoglobin A1c from 8.2 to 7.6%, and a decreased fructosamine level by 16%. Vanadyl sulfate treatment also lowered plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but did not affect 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, and was well-tolerated with a progressively increased dose treatment regimen.
“Vanadium Compounds in the Treatment of Diabetes,” Thompson KH, Orvig C, Met Ions Biol Syst. 2004.
Many of the B vitamins work together as co-factors in the function of many critical metabolic enzymes. Biotin is no exception. Biotin, like thiamine and niacin, is also required for normal function of:
* pyruvate decarboxylase (an enzyme involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism),
* propionyl-coA carboxylase (an enzyme involved in fat metabolism),
* and acetyl-coA carboxylase (also involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism).
Biotin is known to bind to specific sites in these enzymes in order to optimize function, and supplementation of biotin is known to increase the activities of these enzymes in people with diabetes as well as those without diabetes
Most of the research available on biotin in diabetes comes from recent research supported by Nutrition 21, Inc., a company who manufacturers a nutritional supplement that is a combination of chromium picolinate and biotin (Diachrome®). Recent studies have demonstrated in people with diabetes, the combination of chromium picolinate and biotin resulted in an average 0.54% reduction in HbA1c, significant reductions in LDL and VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride.
Albarracin, C.A., et al., Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 2007.
Geohas, J., et al., Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am J Med Sci, 2007. 333(3): p. 145-53.
The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial.
Singer GM, Geohas J.
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8017, USA. Gregory.firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have shown that the combination of chromium picolinate and biotin significantly enhances glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and enhances glucose disposal. The present pilot study was conducted to determine if supplementation with chromium picolinate and biotin can improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with suboptimal glycemic control despite use of oral antihyperglycemic agents.
METHODS: Forty-three subjects with impaired glycemic control (2-h glucose >200 mg/dL; glycated hemoglobin >or=7%), despite treatments with oral antihyperglycemic agents, were randomized to receive 600 microg of chromium as chromium picolinate and biotin (2 mg/day) (Diachrome(, Nutrition 21, Inc., Purchase, NY) in addition to their prestudy oral antihyperglycemic agent therapy. Measurements of glycemic control and blood lipids were taken at baseline and after 4 weeks.
RESULTS: After 4 weeks, there was a significantly greater reduction in the total area under the curve for glucose during the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test for the treatment group (mean change -9.7%) compared with the placebo group (mean change +5.1%, P < 0.03). Significantly greater reductions were also seen in fructosamine (P < 0.03), triglycerides (P < 0.02), and triglycerides/ high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (P < 0.05) in the treatment group. No significant adverse events were attributed to chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation.
CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates that supplementation with a combination of chromium picolinate and biotin in poorly controlled patients with diabetes receiving antidiabetic therapy improved glucose management and several lipid measurements. Chromium picolinate/ biotin supplementation may represent an effective adjunctive nutritional therapy to people with poorly controlled diabetes with the potential for improving lipid metabolism.